1. Explain if firearms identification an art or a science?

2. Firearms Identification has come under scrutiny recently because of the NAS report. Name three of the critiques of firearms identification by the NAS report or other defense attorney's and state whether these critiques are reasonable.

· Below is a link that has the entire document and the second link is a position paper regarding Firearms and Toolmarks and the third is from a PA defense attorney.

· . 

· The Response of the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners[1] to the February 2009 National Academy of  ." 

· .

3. Given that you have read articles on studies on consecutively manufactured barrels and articles related to reliability and reproducibility in the last couple of weeks, do you think these critiques are still justified?  If these types of studies are not acceptable, what other types of studies should be done to help support the firearms identification field? Give details. 


Hamby, J.E., Brundage, D.J., & Thorpe, J.W. (2009).  .  AFTE Journal, 41(2). 99-110. 

Mattijssen, E.J.A.T., Witteman, C.L.M., Berger, C.E.H, Zheng, X.A., Soons, J.A., & Stoel, R.D. (2021).  .  Journal of Forensic Sciences, 66. 96–111. DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.14557.