Diseases of the Female Reproductive System

Area Affected





Tissue deteriation and function impairment due to disease

Inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium)


Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cervix


Ectopic endometrium located in various sites throughout the pelvis or in the abdominal wall

Problems will arise at the time of menstruation. Swelling, bleeding, and intense pain occur due to the tissue attempting to slough off as in the uterus at menstruation.


Occurs in pregnant women usually during the third trimester

Characterized by edema of the extremities and face, high blood pressure and high albuminuria.

Could be caused by toxemia of pregnancy (there are not really any toxins in the body)

Can lead to convulsions, coma, and death (Eclampsia) NOTE: Preeclampsia is caused by this, it is not the same thing.

Fallopian (Uterine) Tubes


Inflammation of the fallopian tubes

If this occurs bilaterally and is not treated properly, scar tissue may form and close off the tube causing sterility.

Tubal, Ectopic or Extrauterine Pregnancy

When a fertilized ovum attaches to the wall of the fallopian tube or abdominal surface

Embryo will die from lack of blood supply.

It may then calcify forming a lithopedion (stone child)

For an abdominal pregnancy to occur, the egg must have been fertilized before it reaches the fallopian tube and then not enter the tube.

Diseases of the Female Reproductive System

Area Affected






Inflammation of the ovaries

Polycystic Ovaries

Numerous cysts on or in the ovaries

Dermoid Cysts

A cysts containing elements of hair, teeth or skin. Commonly seen in the ovaries and testes.



Inflammation of the Vagina

Can be caused by

· A gonococcal infection

· Mechanical irritations such as tight panty hose

· Chemical irritations and highly irritating uterine discharges.

· Yeast infections – Caused by the fungus Candida albicans. Commonly seen as a complication of antibiotic therapy. The normal flora bacteria of the vagina are destroyed, allowing the fungus to grow.

Puerperal Sepsis

A condition of septicemia following childbirth

Caused by hemolytic streptococcus

Infection is usually spread by contaminated obstetrical instruments. More common in the past.



Inflammation of the mammary glands


Cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma

A common tumor of the ovaries

Uterine Cancer

Most commonly affect the cervix

Cervical cancers are one of the most common malignancies of women worldwide. Usually squamous cell carcinomas

Leiomyoma of the uterus (Benign)

Very common tumor

Sometimes called a fibroid tumor

Carcinoma of the breast

Another of the most common malignancies of women

Spreads rapidly through the surrounding tissues. Including the blood and lymph vessels in the area.

Often requires surgical removal of the breast and surrounding tissues. (Mastectomy)

Diseases of the Male Reproductive System

Area Affected




Testes and Epididymis


Inflammation of the testes.

May be caused by trauma, or as a complication of the mumps or other infectious diseases.

If this infection is serious enough, it may cause scarring, atrophy of the testes and sterility.

Cryptorchism or cryptorchidism

Failure of the testes or a testis to descend into the scrotum.

Sperm cannot develop properly because of the higher temperature in the pelvic cavity

Sterility is often a consequence.


Inflammation of the epididymis

Usually the result of a gonococcal infection. Severe cases could cause scarring and stop the passage of sperm.


Varicose veins of the spermatic cord

Fairly common.

Prostate Gland


Inflammation of the prostate gland

Usually secondary to urethritis. Often caused by Neisseria gonorrheae and Escherichia coli.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

An enlargement of the prostate gland in men 50 and over.

NOT an inflammatory condition. Associated with a hormone imbalance. The consequence of this is interference with the passage of urine.



The collection of serous fluid in the scrotum.

May be a complication of orchitis, epididymitis, or improper closure of the opening between the peritoneal cavity and the scrotum.

The term can actually be used to mean the collection of serous fluid in any sacculated cavity of the body.


Carcinoma of the prostate

Common in older men – Metastasizes rapidly to bone and lymph nodes

Carcinoma of the testes

Tumors of the testes are usually malignant. Most commonly affects men in their 20’s, 30’s and 40’s

Diseases of the Reproductive System


Area Affected





Refers to Both Male and Female

Non-Specific Urethritis (NSU)

One of the most common and widespread of the STD’s.

Most often caused by a chlamydial organism.

Genital Herpes

Characterized by painful, itchy ulcerations or blisters on the genitals and surrounding area.

Caused by Herpes simplex II virus. There is no cure. A recurrent disease. (The ulcers will heal but the virus remains dormant in the body and is reactivated often as a result of stress or in periods of low resistance)


Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae.

Characterized by suppuration.

Will lead to sterility if not properly treated.


Caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.

Characterized by a three stage development.

Primary Stage

Characterized by a genital ulceration called a chancre – heals after about 4-6 weeks

Secondary Stage

Characterized by a generalized red skin rash and mucous patches. Small ulcerations on the mucous membranes.

These symptoms indicate the organism has spread throughout the body. Will last for 2 to 6 weeks.

Tertiary Syphilis

Characterized by areas of necrotic tissue called gumma.

Most commonly affected by this are the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

Neurosyphilis — Can cause several conditions

Damage to the brain causing mental deterioration and paralysis called general paresis.

Degeneration of the posterior part of the spinal cord called tabes dorsalis.

Cardiovascular syphilis — Tends to affect the arteries

Causes inflammation, aneurysms and aortic insufficiency.

Postmortem Conditions for both male and female reproductive system conditions

1. Rapid blood coagulation

2. Ascites

3. Edema

4. Infection