This is open-bookwhich means you may use the PowerPoint lectures, your lecture notes, and the assigned class readings. Do not use other sources (such as Wikipedia, web pages, outside books, etc.).

You will be graded on your familiarity with the lectures, readings, and how well you make your argument based on these sources. Be specific in your answers. For a good grade, convince me that you know the material well and have thought about how best to answer the question. Vague generalities will hurt your grade, but I will not count off for spelling or grammar mistakes.

“I will upload all resources below.” These materials includeThe Rise and Fall of the Roman RepublicThe Roman EmpireThe Jews in the Greek and Roman WorldSt. Benedict and the Rise of Christian MonasticismThe Rise of ChristianityA Tale of Two Saints: Patrick and BrigidThe Byzantine and Islamic Worlds

There are 10 very short essay questions on this test. Please limit yourself to 200 words for each answer.

1. What does Cicero say in our reading about compromise in politics?

2. What does Aeneas learn about the future of Rome when he goes to Hades?

3. Why was the Roman Empire able to last as long as it did?

4. How does the story of Jonah fit in with the Hellenistic idea of cosmopolitanism and discovering the humanity of a world beyond your own community and culture?

5. Why do we talk about early Christianities (plural) in the Roman world?

6. According to our reading, why didn’t Perteptua abandon her Christian beliefs?

7. What does St. Benedict say are the most important qualities of being a monk?

8. What kinds of problems did St. Patrick face during his ministry in Ireland?

9. As we saw in class, what kinds of miracles did St. Brigid do? Do you see any patterns in her miracles?

10. How does Mary in our Koran reading differ from Mary in the Christian New Testament (Gospel of Luke Chapters 1 and 2)?